Actovegin – Antihypoxant and Antioxidant

Formulation:

The active constituent of this medicine is Actovegin concentrate (deproteinized hemoderivative of calf blood).

Available as a solution for injection 40 mg/ml, 200 mg tablets, ointment, cream, gel.

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Indications:

Actovegin: antihypoxant (reduces the oxygen demand in tissues).

Tablets are prescribed:

  • for combination treatment of metabolic/vascular disorders of the brain (traumatic brain injury, various forms of cerebral blood circulation insufficiency, dementia);
  • with peripheral venous/arterial disorders, their consequences (trophic ulcers, angiopathy);
  • with diabetic polyneuropathy.
  • Ointment, cream, gel is used:
  • with various wounds;
  • with inflammation of the skin, mucous membranes;
  • with burns, including sunburns, and also with the aim of promoting tissue repair after burns;
  • with skin cuts;
  • with trophic ulcers;
  • with abrasions, scratches;
  • with ulcers of varicose origin, other weeping ulcers;
  • with bedsores, sluggish wounds;
  • for prevention/treatment of bedsores;
  • for pre-treatment (before transplantation) of wound surfaces;
  • for prevention/treatment of skin reactions due to radiation exposure.
  • Infusion/injection solution is used:
  • with metabolic, cerebral vascular disorders (ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, etc.);
  • for faster healing of wounds (ulcers of various origin, trophic disorders, burns, bedsores, non-healing wounds);
  • for prevention/treatment of radiation lesions of the mucous membranes, the skin during radiation therapy;
  • with peripheral arterial/venous disorders, their consequences (angiopathy, trophic ulcers);
  • with diabetic polyneuropathy, angiopathy.

Contraindications:

Actovegin should be avoided in any form with allergies to the components of the drug, allergic reactivity to similar drugs in the past.

Tablets and solution should be avoided with decompensation (exacerbation) of heart failure, pulmonary edema, reduced urination (oliguria, anuria), fluid retention in the body (overhydration).

This drug should be used with caution in case of hyperchloremia (chloride excess in the blood), hypernatremia (sodium excess).

Use during pregnancy and lactation:

Use of Actovegin in pregnant women has not cause adverse effects on the mother or fetus, as well as during pregnancy. However, when prescribing the drug to a pregnant woman, medical professionals should consider the potential risk to the fetus. For pregnant or nursing mothers, the drug is prescribed in standard dosages.

Dosage and administration:

Actovegin solution is administered intravenously (including infusion), intra-arterially, and also intramuscularly.

Injection rate: slow (2 ml/min).

Due to the possibility of serious anaphylactic reactions, it is recommended to perform an allergic test before administration (2 ml intramuscularly).

Dosage depending on indications:

Metabolic, cerebral vascular disorders: 200-100 mg per day (5 to 25 ml) intravenously daily for 2 weeks, followed by switching to a tablet form of the drug;

Ischemic stroke: 800-2000 mg (20-50 ml), added to 200-300 ml of 0.9% NaCl or 5% glucose solution, administered intravenously by drop infusion over 1 week daily, and then 400-800 mg (10-20 ml) intravenously by drop infusion for 2 weeks, followed by a transition to the tablet form;

Peripheral (arterial/venous) vascular disorders or their consequences: 800-1000 mg (20-30 ml) of a solution added to 200 ml of 0.9% NaCl or 5% glucose solution, administered intravenously or intra-arterially daily (treatment duration – 4 weeks);

Diabetic polyneuropathy: 2000 mg (50 ml) per day intravenously for three weeks, followed by a transition to a tablet form (2-3 tablets 3 times a day) for at least 4-5 months;

Non-healing wounds: 400 mg (10 ml) intravenously or 200 mg (5 ml) intramuscularly 3-4 times weekly or daily depending on the healing process (additional treatment with Actovegin is recommended for topical application);

Prevention/treatment of radiation damage to the skin, mucous membranes during radiation therapy: 200 mg (5 ml) intravenously daily between the radiation exposures;

Radiation cystitis: transurethral administration 400 mg (10 ml) daily in combination with antibiotics;

If administered intramuscularly, no more than 5 ml should be applied slowly.

It is necessary to strictly observe aseptic conditions, as Actovegin solution does not contain preservatives.

Actovegin tablets are taken by mouth. The standard dose is 1-2 tablets 3 times per day. The tablet should be swallowed whole with water before meals. Duration of treatment is 4-6 weeks.

Medicinal forms of Actovegin for external use (ointment, cream, gel) are used for the prevention/treatment of radiation lesions of the mucous membranes and skin after radiation therapy. The gel is used to cleanse, treat open wounds, ulcers, burns, radiation injuries. The gel is applied to the skin in a thin layer. When treating ulcers, the ointment or gel is applied with a thick layer or covered with a dressing soaked in with the drug (in order to prevent sticking to the wound). The dressing should be changed daily, with strongly weeping ulcers – several times a day. For the treatment of radiation injury in oncological patients, the drug is applied as an application, for the prevention/treatment of bedsores, dressings with the drug are indicated 3-4 times per day (treatment course is 3-60 days). The cream is used to improve the healing of wounds, including weeping, as well as the continuation of gel treatment. In order to prevent bedsores and treat radiation injuries, a cream should be used 2-3 times a day. Ointment is prescribed for long-term treatment (acceleration of epithelialization) of wounds and ulcers.

Overdose:

Currently, overdose information is limited.

Possible overdose should be treated symptomatically.

In case of accidental ingestion of ointment, cream, gel inside, digestive disorders are possible. In this case, it is necessary to perform a gastric lavage, use intestinal sorbents (drugs that absorb harmful substances).

Side effects:

Allergic reactions are possible, manifested by hyperemia (redness) of the skin, itching, urticaria, irritation of the skin, contact dermatitis. There is a possibility of angioedema (rapidly developing swelling of the face or part of it, eyes, lips, larynx with breathing disorder), anaphylactic shock (severe skin itching, a sharp drop in blood pressure, vomiting, loose stools, laryngeal edema, noisy and troubled breathing, pallor/blueness of the skin, a sharp narrowing of the bronchi and larynx, leading to acute respiratory difficulty, disorders of vital organs, loss of consciousness).

Terms and conditions of storage

Store the solution at 18-25 °С. After opening the ampoules, the solution cannot be stored.

Tablets, ointment, gel, and cream should be stored in the original (factory) package, at observance of temperature condition (25 °C), low humidity, and protection from direct sunlight. The expiration date is indicated on the package (up to 5 years).

Parents should ensure the safety of children and limit their access to the drug.

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